*In the Library
The guidelines and examples in this table are based on the MLA Handbook, 8th edition (the most recent edition).
Font: There is no preferred font, but it must be legible, 12 pt., and you should be able to clearly distinguish regular and italic styles.
Margins: Margins should be 1 inch.
Page Numbers: Page numbers should be placed in the document header, flush right. Your instructor may ask you to omit the number on the first page; ask your instructor if you aren't sure what is required of you.
Spacing: The entire document should be double-spaced.First Page: In the upper left hand corner of the first page, include your name, instructor's name, class, and date.
In-text citations should ALWAYS include the author's last name and the page number you are referencing. This is considered the author-page style of referencing.
Consider the following example passage and consult with the table below:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
from pages 46-47 of:
Lester, James. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed., Scott Foresman, 1976.
|Paraphrase||Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas||
-To simplify or clarify the original text
-To demonstrate comprehension of original source
-Reflect on what the author has written, then rewrite it using your own words and sentence structure
-Be sure to accurately represent the author
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
|Quote||Using the author’s exact words||
-To support or add credibility to your arguments.
-When the original is difficult to rephrase
-When the author's original wording is succinct and needs no improvement.
-Use “quotation marks” to mark someone else’s words
-Ensure the quote is identical to the original
-In his book, Writing Research Papers, James Lester asserts that "students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes" which leads them to then use too many quotations in their papers (46-47).
-Students tend to use too many quotations in their research papers because they "frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes" (Lester 46-47).
|Summarize||Condensed/distilled version of the author’s words or ideas||
-To include only main points of the original text
-To give a broad overview of the source material
-A summary is shorter than a paraphrase and covers main points only.
-Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).
-To minimize the amount of quoted material in research papers, Lester suggests that students avoid utilizing direct quotations when taking notes (46-47).
Each of your in-text citations should then point to the item's full citation in your Reference list or Bibliography. Review the guidelines for the citation style you're required to use. More information about the various citation styles can be found in the box below.
Below are some basic rules:
Your works cited list should go at the end of your paper and should start on its own page with the title "Works Cited" centered at the top of the page. There should be no special formatting or quotations. Remember that all of the items in your works cited list should be cited in-text at some point.
Indents: Indent after the first line of each entry.
Order: Alphabetize by the authors' last names.
Author(s). Title of book. Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication.
Shotton, Margaret. Computer Addiction? A Study of Computer Dependency. Taylor & Francis, 1989.
Sternberg, Elaine. Just Business: Business Ethics in Action. 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 2000.
Author(s). Title of book. Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of library database.
Hess, Edward D. Smart Growth : Building an Enduring Business by Managing the Risks of Growth. Columbia University Press, 2010. Ebook Central.
Author(s). Title of book. Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of website, URL. Accessed day Month year.
King, Samuel P., and Randall W. Roth. Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement & Political Manipulation at America’s Largest Charitable Trust. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2016. ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa, http://hdl.handle.net/10125/48548. Accessed 21 December 2017.
Author(s). "Title of Chapter." Title of Book, edited by Editor(s), Edition, Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. page numbers.
Haybron, Daniel M. "Philosophy and the Science of Subjective Well-Being." The Science of Subjective Well-Being, edited by Michael Eid and Randy J. Larsen, Guilford Press, 2008, pp. 17-43.
Electronic Journal Article with a DOI
*try to utilize the DOI if it is available
Author(s). "Title of article." Name of Journal, vol. volume, no. issue, year, pp: pages. Name of Database, doi: DOI number.
Gaudio, Jennifer L., and Charles T. Snowdon. "Spatial Cues More Salient Than Color Cues in Cotton-top Tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus) Reversal Learning." Journal of Comparative Psychology, vol. 122, no. 4, 2008, pp: 441-444. PsycARTICLES, doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.4.441
Herbst-Damm, Kathryn L., and James A. Kulik. "Volunteer Support, Marital Status, and the Survival Times of Terminally Ill Patients. Health Psychology, vol. 24, no. 2, 2005, pp: 225-229. SocINDEX with Full Text, doi:10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206
Electronic Journal Article without a DOI
Author(s). "Title of article." Name of Journal, vol. volume, no. issue, year, pp: pages. Name of Database.
Atwater, Mary M., et al. "A Case Study of Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings and Actions Related to the Culturally Responsive Teaching of 'Other' Students." International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, vol. 5, no. 3, 2010, pp: 287-318. ERIC.
Author(s). "Title of article." Name of Journal, vol. volume, no. issue, year, pp: pages, full URL. Accessed day Month year.
Atwater, Mary M., et al. "A Case Study of Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings and Actions Related to the Culturally Responsive Teaching of 'Other' Students." International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, vol. 5, no. 3, 2010, pp: 287-318, https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ895740. Accessed 21 December 2017.
Print Journal Article
Author(s). "Title of article." Name of Journal, vol. volume, no. issue, year, pp: pages.
Agodini, Roberto, and Barbara Harris. "An Experimental Evaluation of Four Elementary School Math Curricula." Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, vol. 3, no. 3, 2010, 199-253.
Bolick, Cheryl M., et al. "The Marginalization of Elementary Social Studies in Teacher Education." Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010, 1-22.
Search for what you need in any of the "resources" located to the left. The official manual guide is always your best bet.