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Citing Sources: Chicago Manual

Featuring the most frequently used citation styles...


The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its seventeen editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing.


  • Is Chicago the same as Turabian?
    Chicago and Turabian are VERY similar guides, with just a few differences. Whereas The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) was designed for professionals who are publishing, Turabian was written specifically for students completing research papers. They are both published by the University of Chicago and Kate Turabian, who wrote the guide simplifying CMOS for students, was actually a dissertation secretary for one of the University's graduate divisions.


  • What are the main differences?
    • Turabian is much shorter than CMOS.
    • Turabian was written for students; CMOS was written for professional scholars.
    • CMOS omits information about margins and title pages, but Turabian includes guidelines.
    • When citing websites, Turabian requires you to include the date it was accessed; CMOS doesn't require this (leaves it up to you).
    • For the issue number of journal articles:
      • CMOS: use parentheses
      • Turabian: use no.
        no. #
  • There are two systems? What does this mean?
    Yes, both Chicago and Turabian are broken into two different systems or styles:
  1. Author-Date
    -Generally used in physical, natural, and social sciences courses.
    -In-text citations utilize parentheses to enclose the author's last name and year of publication; an accompanying list of references contains the full citation.
  2. Notes-Bibliography
    -Generally used in literature, history, and art courses.
    -Notes are presented as either footnotes or endnotes, with an accompanying bibliography which has the full citation.
  • I'm confused....
    Again, Chicago and Turabian are essentially the same thing. If you need additional clarification or aren't sure which of the two systems you should be using, ask your instructor.